The preamble of the Indian Constitution declared India to be a ‘Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic.’ The Constitution of India provides for equality before the law under Article 15(1), which observes that ‘The State shall not discriminate against any citizen on grounds only of religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth or any of them.’ Article 15(3) gives scope for affirmative action for women and states, ‘Nothing in this Article shall prevent the State from making any special provision for women and children.’

To access initial and periodic reports, click here.

Year Link
Date of Signature  30/07/1980
Date of Ratification/Accession 09/07/1993
Initial Report  
State Party’s Report 1999 Click here.
Concluding Observations 2000 Click here.
Second & Third Reporting Cycle  
State Party’s Report   2005 Click here.
Concluding Observations 2007 Click here.
Shadow Report 2006 Click here.
Exceptional State Party’s Report (Gujarat 2002 riots) 2009 Click here.
Concluding Observations on Exceptional Report 2010 Click here.
Fourth & Fifth Reporting Cycle
State Party’s Report 2012 Click here.
Concluding Observations 2014 Click here.
Follow-up Report 2014 Click here.
Shadow Report 2014 Click here.


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